Understanding Well-being Data

chapter 4 Discovering ‘the new science of happiness’ and subjective well-being


Adler, M. 2013. Happiness Surveys and Public Policy: What’s the Use? Duke Law Journal 62: 1509–1601.

Ahmed, S. 2010. The Promise of Happiness. Durham: Duke University Press.

———. 2012. On Being Included: Racism and Diversity in Institutional Life. Durham: Duke University Press.

Aked, J., et al. 2008. Five Ways to Wellbeing. Accessed 31 March 2021. https://neweconomics.org/2008/10/five-ways-to-wellbeing.

Aldridge, F., and P. Lavender. 2000. The Impact of Learning on Health. Leicester: National Institute of Adult Continuing Education.

Alexandrova, A. 2017. A Philosophy for the Science of Well-being. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Allin, P. 2007. Measuring Societal Wellbeing. Economic & Labour Market Review 1 (10): 46–52. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.elmr.1410157.

Allin, P., and D.J. Hand. 2017. New Statistics for Old?—Measuring the Wellbeing of the UK. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society) 180 (1): 3–43. https://doi.org/10.1111/rssa.12188.

Ateca-Amestoy, V. 2011. Leisure and Subjective Well-Being. In Handbook on the Economics of Leisure, ed. S. Cameron. Edward Elgar Publishing.

Bache, I., and L. Reardon. 2013. An Idea Whose Time has Come? Explaining the Rise of Well-Being in British Politics. Political Studies 61 (4): 898–914. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9248.12001.

Beckett, A. 2017. PPE: The Oxford Degree that Runs Britain. The Guardian. http://www.theguardian.com/education/2017/feb/23/ppe-oxford-university-degree-that-rules-britain.

Benjamin, D.J., et al. 2012. What Do You Think Would Make You Happier? What Do You Think You Would Choose? American Economic Review 102 (5): 2083–2110. https://doi.org/10.1257/aer.102.5.2083.

Bentham, J. 1996 [1789]. An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Berlant, L. 2011. Cruel Optimism. Duke University Press.

Bidwell, S. 2014. The Arts in Health: Evidence from the International Literature. Pegasus Health.

Blanchflower, D.G. 2008. International Evidence on Well-Being. 3354. Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor.

Bradburn, N. 1969. The Structure of Psychological Well-Being. Chicago: Aldine.

Bu, F., et al. 2020. Time-Use and Mental Health during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Panel Analysis of 55,204 Adults Followed across 11 Weeks of Lockdown in the UK. medRxiv, p.c 2020.08.18.20177345. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.08.18.20177345.

Cantril, H. 1965. The Patterns of Human Concern. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Clark, A., and C. Senik. 2011. Is Happiness Different from Flourishing? Cross-Country Evidence from the ESS. HAL Archives-Ouvertes.fr. School of Economics (Working Paper). https://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00561867.

Cloninger, C.R. 2005. Character Strengths and Virtues: A Handbook and Classification. American Journal of Psychiatry 162 (4): 820-a. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.162.4.820-a.

Cresswell, J. 2010. Oxford Dictionary of Word Origins. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Crisp, R. 1997. Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Mill on Utilitarianism. Psychology Press.

———. 2006. Hedonism Reconsidered. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 73 (3): 619–645. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1933-1592.2006.tb00551.x.

Davies, W. 2015. The Happiness Industry: How the Government and Big Business Sold Us Well-being. Verso.

———. 2018. Nervous States: How Feeling Took Over the World. Jonathan Cape.

Daykin, N. and Joss, T. 2016. Arts for health and Wellbeing: An Evaluation Framework. 2015595. Public Health England. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/arts-for-health-and-wellbeing-an-evaluation-framework.

Diener, E., Scollon, C. N., and Lucas, R. E. 2009. The evolving concept of subjective well-being: The multifaceted nature of happiness. In Assessing well-being: The collected works of Ed Diener (pp. 67–100). Springer Science + Business Media. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-2354-4_4

Diener, E., and W. Tov. 2012. National Accounts of Well-Being. In Handbook of Social Indicators and Quality of Life Research, ed. K.C. Land, A.C. Michalos, and M.J. Sirgy, 137–157. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-2421-1_7.

Dodd, J., and C. Jones. 2014. Mind, Body, Spirit: How Museums Impact Health and Wellbeing. Report. University of Leicester. Accessed 31 March 2021. Available at: https://leicester.figshare.com/articles/report/Mind_Body_Spirit_How_museums_impact_health_and_wellbeing/10137716/files/18270350.pdf

Dolan, P., and Metcalfe, R. 2012. Measuring Subjective Wellbeing: Recommendations on Measures for use by National Governments. Journal of SocialPolicy,41(2),409–427. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047279411000833

Dolan, P., T. Peasgood, and M. White. 2008. Do We Really Know What Makes Us Happy? A Review of the Economic Literature on the Factors Associated with Subjective Well-Being. Journal of Economic Psychology 29 (1): 94–122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joep.2007.09.001.

Dolan, P., R. Layard, and R. Metcalfe. 2011a. Measuring Subjective Well-Being for Public Policy. Office for National Statistics.

———. 2011b. Measuring Subjective Well-Being for Public Policy: Recommendations on Measures. London School of Economics: Centre for Economic Performance.

Donovan, N., and D. Halpern. 2002. Life Satisfaction: The State of Knowledge and Implications for Government. London: Prime Minister’s Strategy Unit.

Duckworth, K., and O. Cara. 2012. The Relationship between Adult Learning and Wellbeing: Evidence from the 1958 National Child Development Study. London: Department for Business, Innovation & Skills (BIS Research Paper). http://hdl.voced.edu.au/10707/236318.

Easterlin, R. 1973. Does Money Buy Happiness? The Public Interest 30 (3): 3–10.

Easterlin, R.A. 1974. Does Economic Growth Improve the Human Lot? Some Empirical Evidence. In Nations and Households in Economic Growth, ed. P.A. David and M.W. Reder, 89–125. New York: Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-205050-3.50008-7.

———. 2001. Income and Happiness: Towards a Unified Theory. The Economic Journal. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-0297.00646.

Easterlin, R., et al. 2010. The Happiness–Income Paradox Revisited. Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences 107 (52): 22361–22362.

EconLit. n.d. EconLit, American Economic Association. Available at: https://www.aeaweb.org/econlit/. Accessed: 28 April 2021.

Ehrenreich, B. 2010. Barbara Ehrenreich—Smile or Die. RSA. Accessed 28 April 2021. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PJGMFu74a70.

———. 2021. Smile or Die: How Positive Thinking Fooled America and the World. S.l.: Granta Publications Ltd.

ELSA. n.d. The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), ELSA. Accessed 28 April 2021. https://www.elsa-project.ac.uk

Field, J. 2009. Good for Your Soul? Adult Learning and Mental Well-Being. International Journal of Lifelong Education 28 (2): 175–191. https://doi.org/10.1080/02601370902757034.

Fleche, S., C. Smith, and P. Sorsa. 2012. Exploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries: Evidence from the World Value Survey. 921. Pari: Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development.

Fujiwara, D., and G. MacKerron. 2015. Cultural Activities, Artforms and Wellbeing. London: Arts Council England.

Gray, C. 2004. Joining-Up or Tagging On? The Arts, Cultural Planning and the View From Below. Public Policy and Administration 19 (2): 38–49. https://doi.org/10.1177/095207670401900206.

Grimes, A., and M. Reinhardt. 2019. Relative Income, Subjective Wellbeing and the Easterlin Paradox: Intra- and Inter-national Comparisons. In The Economics of Happiness: How the Easterlin Paradox Transformed Our Understanding of Well-Being and Progress, ed. M. Rojas, 85–105. Cham: Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-15835-4_4.

Hallsworth, M., S. Parker, and J. Rutter. 2011. Policy Making in the Real World: Evidence and Analysis. London: Institute for Government.

Helliwell, J.F. 2003. How’s Life? Combining Individual and National Variables to Explain Subjective Well-Being. Economic Modelling 20 (2): 331–360. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0264-9993(02)00057-3.

Helliwell, J., L. Richard, and J. Sachs. 2015. World Happiness Report 2015. New York: UN Sustainable Development Solutions Network.

Helliwell, J., R. Layard, and J. Sachs. 2017. World Happiness Report 2017. New York: Sustainable Development Solutions Network. Accessed 28 April 2021 https://worldhappiness.report/ed/2017.

———. 2019. World Happiness Report 2019. New York: Sustainable Development Solutions Network. Accessed 28 April 2021. https://worldhappiness.report/ed/2019/.

Huppert, F.A., and J.E. Whittington. 2003. Evidence for the Independence of Positive and Negative Well-Being: Implications for Quality of Life Assessment. British Journal of Health Psychology 8 (1): 107–122. https://doi.org/10.1348/135910703762879246.

Hurka, T. 1993. Perfectionism. New York: Oxford University Press.

Jeffries, S 2008. Will This Man Make You Happy?, The Guardian. http://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2008/jun/24/healthandwellbeing.schools.

Kahneman, D., and A. Deaton. 2010. High Income Improves Evaluation of Life But Not Emotional Well-Being. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107 (38): 16489–16493. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1011492107.

Kahneman, D., and A.B. Krueger. 2006. Developments in the Measurement of Subjective Well-Being. Journal of Economic Perspectives 20 (1): 3–24. https://doi.org/10.1257/089533006776526030.

Kahneman, D., and J. Riis. 2005. Living and Thinking About It: Two Perspectives on Life. In The Science of Wellbeing: Integrating Neurobiology, Psychology, and Social Science, ed. F. Huppert, N. Baylis, and B. Kaverne. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Kahneman, D., and R. Sugden. 2005. Experienced Utility as a Standard of Policy Evaluation. Environmental and Resource Economics 32 (1): 161–181. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10640-005-6032-4.

Kahneman, D., E. Diener, and N. Schwarz, eds. 1999. Well-being: The Foundations of Hedonic Psychology. New York: Russell-Sage.

Kahneman, D., et al. 2004. A Survey Method for Characterizing Daily Life Experience: The Day Reconstruction Method. Science 306 (5702): 1776–1780. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1103572.

Krekel, C., & MacKerron, G. 2020. How Environmental Quality Affects Our Happiness. In J. F. Helliwell, R. Layard, J. Sachs, & J.-E. De Neve (Eds.), World Happiness Report 2020, 95–112. Sustainable Development Solutions Network. https://happiness-report.s3.amazonaws.com/2020/WHR20.pdf.

Layard, R. 2003. Happiness: Has Social Science a Clue? In Lionel Robbins Memorial Lecture. London: London School of Economics. https://digital.library.lse.ac.uk/objects/lse:vuk454feq.

———. 2006. Happiness: Lessons from a New Science. London: Penguin.

Le Guin, U.K. 2017. The Unreal and the Real: The Selected Short Stories of Ursula K. Le Guin. London: Gallery/Saga Press.

Levitt, R., and W. Solesbury. 2012. Debate: Tsars—Are They the ‘Experts’ Now? Public Money & Management 32 (1): 47–48. https://doi.org/10.1080/09540962.2012.643057.

LSE Centre for Economic Performance. n.d. CEP | Topics | Wellbeing, Centre for Economic Performance. Accessed 31 March 2021. https://cep.lse.ac.uk/_new/our-work/topics/wellbeing/.

MacKerron, G., and S. Mourato. 2013. Happiness Is Greater in Natural Environments. Global Environmental Change 23 (5): 992–1000. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2013.03.010.

Mak, H.W., M. Fluharty, and D. Fancourt. 2020. Predictors and Impact of Arts Engagement during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Analyses of Data from 19,384 Adults in the COVID-19 Social Study. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/rckp5.

Massumi, B. 2002. Parables for the Virtual: Movement, Affect, Sensation. Duke University Press.

McKenzie, L. 2015. Policymakers Don’t Know How to Value Culture, Says AHRC Report. Research Professional. Accessed 1 October 2016. https://www.researchprofessional.com/0/rr/news/uk/researchcouncils/2015/10/PolicymakersdontknowhowtovalueculturesaysAHRCreport.html. (sign in)

Nickson, S. 2020. Personal Wellbeing Harmonised Standard. Government Statistical Service. Accessed 31 March 2021. https://gss.civilservice.gov.uk/policy-store/personal-well-being.

Nuffield. 2021. People Exercising Less and Watching More TV Than in First Lockdown. Nuffeld Foundation. Accessed 31 March 2021. https://www.nuffieldfoundation.org/news/people-exercising-less-and-watching-more-tv-than-in-first-lockdown.

Oakley, K., O’Brien, D. and Lee, D. 2013. Happy Now? Well-being and Cultural Policy, Philosophy and Public Policy Quarterly, 31(2), pp. 18–26. doi: 10.13021/G8pppq.312013.131.

O’Donnell, G. 2020. Handling Covid Crisis Required Stronger Leadership and a Better Use of a Wider Range of Evidence Says Gus O’ Donnell. Institute for Fiscal Studies. The IFS. Accessed 31 March 2021. https://www.ifs.org.uk/publications/15042.

O’Donnell, G., et al. 2014. Wellbeing and Policy. London: Legatum Institute.

OECD. 2013. How’s Life? 2013 Measuring Well-Being. OECD (OECD Better Life Initiative). http://www.oecd.org/sdd/3013071e.pdf.

———. 2014. Competition. http://www.oecd.org/daf/competition

Oman, S. 2015a. Measuring National Well-Being: What Matters to You? What Matters to Whom? In Cultures of Wellbeing: Method, Place, Policy, ed. S. White and C. Blackmore. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Oman, S. 2015b. Why government issued well-being may not make us happier. The Conversation. Available at: http://theconversation.com/why-government-issued-well-being-may-not-make-us-happier-42153. Accessed 11 August 2021.

———. 2017a. All Being Well: Cultures of Participation and the Cult of Measurement. PhD. The University of Manchester.

———. 2017b. Mainstream Cultural Activities and Subjective Well-Being. A Review of the Literature. A Report to the Wellcome Trust.

———. 2020. Leisure Pursuits: Uncovering the ‘Selective Tradition’ in Culture and Well-Being Evidence for Policy. Leisure Studies 39 (1): 11–25. https://doi.org/10.1080/02614367.2019.1607536.

Oman, S. and Edwards, D. 2020. Temporalities and Typologies of Loneliness: A Methodology to Understand New Parents, Self-predicted Loneliness & the Role of NCT’, In Loneliness & Social Isolation in Mental Health Research Network Symposium, London. Available at: https://www.ucl.ac.uk/psychiatry/events/2020/jan/loneliness-social-isolation-mental-health-research-network-symposium.

Oman, S., J. Rainford, and H. Stewart. 2015. Stories of Access in Higher Education: A Triumph (or Failure) of Hope over Experience? Discover Society, 1 December. Accessed 28 April 2021. https://archive.discoversociety.org/2015/12/01/stories-of-access-in-higher-education-a-triumph-or-failure-of-hope-over-experience.

Oman, S., and A. Bull. 2021, forthcoming. Joining up well-being and sexual misconduct data and policy in HE: ‘to stand in the gap’ as a feminist approach. The Sociological Review.

ONS. n.d. Measuring National Well-being: Conceptual Framework. Resource Pack.

ONS. 2011a. Initial Investigation into Subjective Well-Being from the Opinions Survey. Office for National Statistics. http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/wellbeing/measuring-subjective-wellbeing-in-the-uk/investigation-of-subjective-well-being-data-from-the-ons-opinions-survey/index.html.

———. 2015a. Measuring National Well-Being: Life in the UK, 2015. Office for National Statistics. https://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20160106094809/http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/dcp171766_398059.pdf.

———. 2015b. Measuring National Wellbeing: Personal Well-Being in the UK, 2014 to 2015. Newport: Office for National Statistics.

———. Measures of National Well-being Dashboard. Office for National Statistics. https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/wellbeing/articles/measuresofnationalwellbeingdashboard/2018-04-25. Accessed 30 March 2021.

Peterson, C. and Seligman, M. E. P. 2004. Character Strengths and Virtues: A Handbook and Classification. New York: Oxford: American Psychological Association.

Pollmann-Schult, M. 2014. Parenthood and Life Satisfaction: Why Don’t Children Make People Happy? Journal of Marriage and Family 76 (2): 319–336. https://doi.org/10.1111/jomf.12095.

van Praag, B.M.S., P. Frijters, and A. Ferrer-i-Carbonell. 2003. The Anatomy of Subjective Well-Being. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 51 (1): 29–49. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-2681(02)00140-3.

Ralph, K., K. Palmer, and J. Olney. 2011. Subjective Well-Being: A Qualitative Investigation of Subjective Well-Being Questions. Working Paper for the Technical Advisory Group on 29 March 2012.

Rustin, S. 2012. The Conversation: Can Happiness be Measured?, The Guardian. Accessed 28 April 2021.  https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2012/jul/20/wellbeing-index-happiness-julian-baggini

Ryan, F. 2021. Cake and Inner Calm: 10 Ways to Improve Your Mood—Without Exercising. The Guardian. Accessed 29 March 2021. http://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2021/feb/23/cake-and-inner-calm-10-ways-to-improve-your-mood-without-exercising.

Ryff, C.D. 1989. Happiness Is Everything, or Is It? Explorations on the Meaning of Psychological Well-Being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 57 (6): 1069–1081. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.57.6.1069.

Ryff, C.D., and C.L. Keyes. 1995. The Structure of Psychological Well-Being Revisited. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 69 (4): 719–727. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.69.4.719.

Sedgwick, E.K., and A. Frank. 2003. Touching Feeling: Affect, Pedagogy, Performativity. Duke University Press.

Seligman, M.E.P. 1998. APA President’s Address 1998. Positive Psychology Center. https://ppc.sas.upenn.edu/sites/default/files/APA%20President%20Address%201998.docx.

Seligman, M. 2002. Authentic Happiness. Random House Australia.

Seligman, M.E.P., and M. Csikszentmihalyi. 2000. Positive psychology: An introduction. American Psychologist 55 (1): 5–14. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.5.

Seligman, M.E.P., et al. 2005. Positive Psychology Progress: Empirical Validation of Interventions. American Psychologist 60 (5): 410–421. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.60.5.410.

Shah, H., and N. Marks. 2004. A Well-Being Manifesto for a Flourishing Society. London: New Economics Foundation.

Smith, C., and C. Exton. 2013. OECD Guidelines on Measuring Subjective WellBeing. Paris: OECD Publishing. https://read.oecd-ilibrary.org/economics/oecd-guidelines-on-measuring-subjective-well-being_9789264191655-en#page258.

Stevenson, B., and J. Wolfers. 2008. Economic Growth and Subjective WellBeing: Reassessing the Easterlin Paradox. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 2008 (1): 1–87. https://doi.org/10.1353/eca.0.0001.

———. 2012. Subjective and Objective Indicators of Racial Progress. The Journal of Legal Studies. The University of Chicago Press. https://doi.org/10.1086/669963.

Stevenson, D., K. McKay, and D. Rowe. 2010. Tracing British Cultural Policy Domains: Contexts, Collaborations and Constituencies. International Journal of Cultural Policy 16 (2): 159–172. https://doi.org/10.1080/10286630902862646.

Stiglitz, J.E., A. Sen, and J.-P. Fitoussi. 2009. Report by the Commission on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress. OECD. https://ec.europa.eu/environment/beyond_gdp/download/CMEPSP-final-report.pdf

Stone, A., S. Shiffman, and M. DeVries. 1999. Ecological Momentary Assessment. In Well-being: The Foundations of Hedonic Psychology, ed. D. Kahneman, E. Diener, and N. Schwarz, 26–39. New York: Russell-Sage.

Tadić, M., A.B. Bakker, and W.G.M. Oerlemans. 2013. Work Happiness Among Teachers: A Day Reconstruction Study on the Role of Self-Concordance. Journal of School Psychology 51 (6): 735–750. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2013.07.002.

Tate, S.A. 2016. ’I Can’t Quite Put My Finger on It’: Racism’s Touch. Ethnicities 16 (1): 68–85. https://doi.org/10.1177/1468796814564626.

———. 2017. Putting Feelings into Words: Racism and Wellbeing in Universities. Leeds Beckett University. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bbLXxRSKi5s.

The University of Manchester. n.d. Student Support | Taking Care of Your Wellbeing | Wellbeing | Six Ways to Wellbeing | The University of Manchester, Student Support. Accessed 28 April 2021. https://www.studentsupport.manchester.ac.uk/taking-care/wellbeing/six-ways-to-wellbeing.

Thrift, N. 2004. Intensities of Feeling: Towards a Spatial Politics of Affect. Geografska Annaler: Series B, Human Geography 86 (1): 57–78. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0435-3684.2004.00154.x.

University of Essex, Institute for Social and Economic Research, NatCen Social Research, Kantar Public. 2020. Understanding Society: Waves 1-10, 2009-2019 and Harmonised BHPS: Waves 1-18, 1991-2009. [data collection]. 13th Edition. UK Data Service. SN: 6614, http://doi.org/10.5255/UKDA-SN-6614-14.

Veenhoven, R. 1996. The Study of Life Satisfaction. In A Comparative Study of Satisfaction with Life in Europe, ed. W. Saris et al., 11–48. Budapest: Eötvös University. https://repub.eur.nl/pub/16311.

———. 2010. Greater Happiness for a Greater Number. Journal of Happiness Studies 11 (5): 605–629. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-010-9204-z.

Waldron, S. 2010. Measuring Subjective Wellbeing in the UK: Working Paper. Newport: Office for National Statistics. http://www.mas.org.uk/uploads/artlib/measuring-subjective-wellbeing-in-the-uk.pdf.

Watson, D., L. Clark, and A. Tellegen. 1988. Development and Validation of Brief Measures of Positive and Negative Affect: The PANAS Scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 54 (6): 1063–1070. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.54.6.1063.

Wetherell, M. 2012. Affect and Emotion: A New Social Science Understanding. SAGE Publications.

White, M.P., and P. Dolan. 2009. Accounting for the Richness of Daily Activities. Psychological Science 20 (8): 1000–1008. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2009.02392.x.

World Economic Forum. 2013. The Global Competitiveness Report 2013–2014. Geneva: World Economic Forum. http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GlobalCompetitivenessReport_2013-14.pdf

Zubaida, S.D. 1967. Review of the Pattern of Human Concerns. The British Journal of Sociology 18: 212–212. https://doi.org/10.2307/588624.